Marine Fossils Mixed with Hell Creek Dinosaurs

Hell Creek State Park photograph

Another apparent marine animal in the “wrong” place

by Tim Clarey, Ph.D.

Recently, a new species of shark was found at the site where T. rex“Sue” was extracted.1 While this didn’t surprise Flood geologists,2 it required some special pleading by evolutionary scientists to explain away another apparent marine animal in the “wrong” place.

Sue was discovered in South Dakota in a sedimentary rock unit known as the Hell Creek Formation (HCF).1 This formation also covers parts of North Dakota and Montana and resides near the top of a massive pile of sedimentary rocks called the Williston Basin.

A few years ago, I researched the HCF and showed that it was encapsulated, top and bottom, by sedimentary rocks that even secular scientists agree are marine in origin. …

Secular scientists have found numerous marine invertebrate fossils throughout the HCF. Using the informal subdivisions identified by earlier scientists, they determined there were marine fossils in three of the four subunits. Brackish-water and marine bivalves called Crassostrea (oysters) and Corbicula (clams), gastropod Pachymelania (snails), and the crustacean trace fossil Ophiomorpha were common throughout the formation.

A variety of animal groups are found in the Upper Cretaceous HCF and in the overlying Paleogene Fort Union Formation.3 The data show multiple examples of mixed land, freshwater, and marine influences in the upper HCF. These results mesh well with the marine influence found in North Dakota.4

Surprisingly, in two volumes of papers published on the HCF in the last 20 years, little is mentioned of the occurrences of five (now six) species of sharks, the 14 species of fish, and the bivalves that indicate a marine influence on the formation. Secular scientists either ignore these findings or dismiss them as freshwater sharks and fish, in spite of the more reasonable conclusion that they represent marine organisms…


image credit: Hell Creek State Park photograph from